Financial Inclusion in the Europe and Central Asia Region

Financial Inclusion in the Europe and Central Asia Region


This paper focuses on financial inclusion of individuals, provides an overview of how Europe and Central Asian countries fare in the global context, and identifies opportunities and challenges in promoting financial inclusion.

Inclusive financial systems are those with a high share of individuals that use financial services. Such systems provide individuals with greater access to resources to meet their financial needs, such as saving for retirement, investing in education, capitalizing on business opportunities, and confronting shocks. Inability to use these financial services can contribute to persistent income inequality and slow economic growth. However, financial systems around the world are far from inclusive. Many poor people around the world lack the financial services that can serve these functions, such as bank accounts and digital payments.

Full content of the publication


Emerging markets Financial inclusion Financial inclusion Financial institutions


Bingjie Hu

Asli Demirguc-Kunt

Leora Klapper

Lead Economist, Development Research Group World Bank

Additional Information

Date published


Document Type



Asia Central, Europa





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